Diabetes FAQ
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Diabetes  - Frequently Asked Questions

• What is diabetes?

Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose, or sugar, levels are too high.


• How is diabetes caused?



A gland called pancreas which is present below the stomach produces a hormone called insulin. This hormone controls the level of sugar in the blood by directing it’s storage in the tissues after intake of food. A lack of insulin in the body or resistance to its action causes diabetes.


• What are the types of diabetes?


Type 1 Diabetes

    • About 10% of affected people have this type.
    • Usually occurs before the age of 30.
    • Usually occurs in thin to normal weight people.

Type 2 Diabetes

  • About 90% of affected people have this type.
  • Usually occurs after the age of 40.
  • Usually occurs in overweight people.

Gestational Diabetes

  • Occurs in about 4% of pregnancies.
  • Usually goes away after the baby is born.
  • Permanent diabetes may occur in upto 50% women in later life.


There are other rare types of diabetes.



• Who are commonly affected?

Diabetes is commonly seen in those people with relatives having diabetes, those without physical exercise, unhealthy food habits, excessive body weight, high blood pressure (B.P.), old age, those with diabetes during pregnancy.

• Is diabetes a common problem?

Yes, One among 10 people in India might be suffering from diabetes, However the patient may not be aware in the initial stages.

• What are the symptoms of Diabetes?

  • Frequent urination.
  • Excessive thirst.
  • Unexplained weight loss.
  • Extreme hunger.
  • Blurred vision.
  • Tingling or numbness in hands or feet.
  • Feeling very tired much of the time.
  • Dry, itchy skin.
  • Sores that are slow to heal.
  • Yeast infections.


  • Remember: During initial stages most patients do not have any symptoms of diabetes!


• How to diagnose if I have diabetes?


A blood sugar test when fasting in the morning. A level greater than 126mg/dl is seen twice means you have diabetes. Similarly an HbA1C value of >6.5 signifies diabetes.

diabetes diagnosis by fasting blood glucose diabetes diagnosis by ogtt
 Fasting Plasma Glucose
 Oral Glucose Tolerance Test


• I don't know why I got diabetes, I never eat sweets?

Sugar does not cause diabetes beyond it's contribution to weight gain. Type 1 diabetes is caused by genetics and unknown factors that trigger the onset of the disease; Type 2 diabetes is caused by genetics and lifestyle factors.

• What are the ABC's of Diabetes?

ABCs of Diabetes

A1C Below 6.5%

  • HbA1C test reflects your blood glucose control over the past few months.
  • Work with your doctor in setting up your own personal A1C goal.
  • Complications of diabetes increase for every 1% increase of A1C above 6%.
  • Following proper diet & regular exercise are your key to control blood glucose.
ABCs of Diabetes

Blood Pressure below 130/80

  • Up to 60% of people with diabetes also have high blood pressure.
  • High blood pressure can cause heart attack, stroke and kidney disease.
  • Reducing sodium in your diet and following DASH diet can help BP control.
ABCs of Diabetes

Cholesterol under check

-The LDL (bad Cholesterol) Goal For Most People Is Below 100.

-The HDL (good Cholesterol) Goal For Most People Is Above 40.

  •  Abnormal cholesterol levels are common among diabetics.
  • LDL or “bad” cholesterol can clog blood vessels and cause heart attack and stroke.
  • HDL or “good” cholesterol helps remove cholesterol from your blood vessels.
  • LDL stays low when you eat less saturated fat and cholesterol from animal foods.
  • HDL stays high when you exercise, eat fish and soluble fiber and lead a healthy life style.



• Can diabetes be cured?

There's no cure for type 2 diabetes (the commonest type), but you can manage — or even prevent — the condition. If diet and exercise aren't enough to control your type 2 diabetes, you may need diabetes medicines or insulin therapy. With good management you can lead a healthy life with minimal or no complications.